THANET-TENEDOS   |   THRINAKIA-CORNWALL   |   OGUGIA-AZORES   |   SCHERIA-LANZAROTE   |   ITHAKA-CADIZ, JEREZ



SCHERIA AND THE FAIAKANS IN THE ALTANTIC

(LANZAROTE AND THE FAYCANS)

Odysseus'Second Voyage, Part V                               PDF-download


The location

  He watched the Pleiades, late-setting Bootes,
  and the Great Bear that men call the Wain,
  that circles in place and keeps an eye on Orion.
  He is the only one that never bathes in Okeanos.
  Kalupso, the lovely goddess had told him to keep
  this constellation to larboard as he crossed the waters.
  Seventeen days he sailed the seas, and on the eighteenth
  the contours of dark peaks loomed up ahead belonging
  to the Faiakan country, at a point that was nearest to him. (5,272 sq)1

This clause is very important for the route of Odysseus' voyage. Starting from the island of Kalupso, identified as St.Miguel, Azores (see map below,IV) , he had to keep Great Bear or Wain to the left (larboard), which means he had to follow an eastward course, the true course to Ithaka, identified as Cadiz and Jerez.2 This direction is in accordance with the direction indicated by the zodiac sign Virgin, that can be derived from the silver-white gown of the goddess Kalupso (5,229)3. 'Great Bear never bathes in the Okeanos' means that this constellation is always visible. The Pleiades he watched rise in summer at 02.00 h in NE; in winter they are at 17.00 h E, at 22.30  S, at 04,30 W; in spring they are at 16.00 h S, at 22.00 W and set at 24.00 h. Boötes follows Great Bear, turns behind him and sets late, while his position is also N. Orion follows the Pleiades.
So, knowing the season Odysseus could easily set and keep the course in this way. Suppose it is spring at 22.00 h.: he has Great Bear and Boötes at port in the north, the Pleiades in the west behind him and Orion behind the Pleiades at starboard in the south. From winter to spring the Pleiades are most useful, which could be an indication for Odysseus' departure.
Because of the Portugal current, the raft will get a drift to SE, that brings him to Lanzarote, the land of the Faiakans or Faycans (Map V). The tailwind Kalupso gives him is a westerner, the Zefuros.

                              

        
                   Legenda map Odysseus' second voyage:
                   I. Departure from Zeeland (Kirke) to the Seirenes on Tenedos (Thanet)
                   II. Skulla and Charubdis at Mont St. Michael
                   III. Thrinakia and the cattle of Helios
                   IV. After second trip to Charubdis: shipwreck and arrival at S.Miguel, the Azores with Kalupso
                   V.  Departure per raft, raft rupture and arrival in Scheria = Lanzarote, Canaries, with the Faiakans (Faycáns)
                   VI. Return trip by Faiakan taxi-ship and arrival at Ithaka in the Forkus-harbour (Cadiz, Jerez)


Location of Scheria according to some authors
-Cailleux' theory that Odysseus sailed toward Portugal, approximately to Odiceixe (Odysseia), where according to Strabo (3,4,3) in his time remnants of Odysseus' raft would still be hanging on the temple walls, is untenable, because Homer tells us clearly (5,280) that 'the contours of the Faiakan country loomed up ahead'. Odysseus himself tells in 7,269 that he nearly had reached the land of the Faiakans.
-Vinci's claim that Scheria wasn't an island but is to be found at the Norwegian coast doesn't take in account the actual text of Homer so that his descriptions of the geography of Odysseus' wanderings in advance have no chance at all. For Scheria lies 'far from the civilised world in the sea with his big swell' (5,279;6,204;9,18) and is only accessible by ship.
-The traditional theory that Scheria is Korfu, Greece, is for the above-mentioned reasons also ridiculous and completely against Homer's text. Scheria isn't located a couple of miles from the Greek mainland as Korfu is, from where the islands of Leukas and Paxos are visible too. Besides, it would be absurd that the great seafarer Odysseus never would have heard of these Faiakans, who, seen from Theaki, would be - mind you!- his direct neighbours. The distance between the Greek Theaki and Korfu is only 110 km. The distance Lanzarote-Cádiz (=Ithaka) is really significant: 1000 km.

More details about Scheria-Lanzarote
-After Poseidon had broken apart Odysseus' raft and Odysseus, thanks to Ino (=Ana) and her veil, survived in the water, it is Athena who helps him swim safely, by sending a tailwind from the north that brings him in two days to the south and on the third day back to the land of the Faiakans. The distance between the sea near the Algarve where the Ana (=Ino: Guadiana) flows into the sea, and Lanzarote (=Faiakia) is about 900 km, which is quite a distance for a swimmer to overcome within 60 hours. However, Athena helps him by breaking the waves in front of him so that he doesn't experience any hindrance and can make an average speed of 15 km p.h.; not too bad, if one considers that the “computerized” Faiakan ships make 200 km p.h.4
-According to 5,400 the Faiakan island neither had harbours nor anchorage but only rocks, cliffs and headlands. Indeed, the north-west coast of Lanzarote doesn't have any harbours, only rocks and mountains, one big bay exposed to the winds and waves, La Famara, and one inlet, called Janubio, where Odysseus finally got ashore, as Cailleux sees it. Ptolemaios already called Lanzarote “inaccessible” (PA 262). The name Janubio can be derived from Janus and ebb and means “Janus' tide river”. The double heads of god Janus in itself indicate the double character of the tides. According to 5,441, this river has “a beautiful mouth”, which means that for the Islanders the river has a holy, religious aspect as a purging reincarnation river.5

Because of many volcanic eruptions and changes in water courses, the Janubio isn't a big river any more, while the inlet itself almost completely has been cut off from the Ocean by pebbles and lava. There is of course still a significant tide difference of about 3 m. Odysseus felt an ebb stream against which he wasn't able to swim. After a prayer to the river god, the ebb current stopped and he was able to swim upstream. After that, he gets ashore at the river bank, a circumstance mystically equal to an acceptance of true birth, just as the verdict of the river Rhine proves the legitimacy of a child.7 In the same way Odysseus proves to be a legitimate child and a reborn soul. After his landing, the river takes its normal course and with the ebb stream the veil of Ino (=Ana) could drift back to the Ocean.
- In 6,94 Homer tells us about a pebble beach in the story of Nausikaä putting the freshly washed clothes on the pebbles to dry. “There the sea washes the pebbles continually clean onto the land” (6,95), which can only mean that the sea at high tide washes the pebbles clean up to many meters, in any case enough to spread all the clothes on the pebbles.  At low tide the clothes can be put on the pebbles that in the meantime have been dried up by the sun. The tides are irrefutable evidence for the Atlantic setting of Ilias and Odyssey (See also Introduction Troy).6

- Wilkens locates the landing place of Odysseus rather in La Famara bay that surely is much closer to the (later) capital Teguise or the harbour Arrecife than Janubio bay is, but hasn't any “protection against the winds”, as Homer describes it. However, it is difficult to say how the coastline ran 3500 years ago; if there was a river in La Famara or water basins; if there were bushes to protect Odysseus. Fact is that all water from sources and rivers nowadays is intercepted and used for agriculture and tourists. Average rainfall now is some 100-200 mm per annum, but it is assumed that only from 1400 AD the climate got drier and hotter. Calvet supposes: zuvor hatte es grüne Anbaugebiete gegeben, doch Anfang des 15. Jahrhunderts begannen trockene Winde - der Scirocco - aus der Sahara über die östlichen Inseln zu wehen und sie wurden trocken und unfruchtbar.8 This fact compelled the inhabitants to intercept all rainwater in cisterns, cellars and pools and to transport it through pipes and channels. Although the Bronze Age climate undoubtedly was wetter, the water level of rivers depended always on the amount of rain. Therefore Homer calls this river a “rain river” in 7,284. Modern maps indicate rain rivers in both bays, La Famara and Janubio.
-Distances: Arrecife-Janubio (Cailleux) about 25 km; Arrecife-La Famara (Wilkens) 16 km; Teguise-La Famara 8km; Teguise-Janubio 28 km. If we assume that Nausikaä's maidens are trotting at low speed behind the mule cart and every now and then ride along on the cart, even the longest distance could be done in 3 or 4 hours. Because Homer tells that the basins are “far from town”(6,40) and the house of Alkinoös lies near the harbour (Arrecife), we can delete the two trips from Teguise. The ladies depart early in the morning (6,31) and return at sunset, which means they used the whole day for the return trip: so both bays are possible destinations. The reason why the basins are so far from town must be the lack of clean water on the island. That is why Homer tells with emphasis about two sweet water sources near the harbour and calls them “beautiful gifts from the gods to the house of Alkinoös” (7,129). They are of course of eminent importance on dry Lanzarote for irrigation purposes and drinking water supply. The second source probably flew into a public water well next to the door of Alkinoös' house.

If the identification of Lanzarote as Faiakia is correct, all other details of Homer's story have to be in accordance with this location. It concerns the following details:
1. the double harbours
2. the relation to the surrounding areas
3. the names Scheria and Faiakans and the history of the people.
4. flora and fauna
5. habits and customs.

1. Double harbours

…………. the city, which is ringed by a high wall
with towers, has a fine harbour on both sides,
and the causeway between is narrow, and the symmetric ships
are drawn up to the road, each man having his own ship and mooring.
There’s a square, as well, around Poseidon’s fine temple,
with huge stones that once have been brought there, bedded deep in the earth.
Here the crews are busy with the black ships’ tackle,
with cables and sails, and here they carve their thin oar blades. (6,262 sqq).

According to this fragment, the city has two harbours on both sides, which is exactly what older maps of Lanzarote indicate1. Arrecife has indeed two harbours, the Porto de Naos and the Porto de Cavallo, the “Ship harbour” and the “Horse harbour”.The last one is now called Puerto de Arrecife, but the first is still called Puerto de Naos and the boulevard along the sea is called Avenida de Naos. The second name is a memory of the famous Faiakan “seahorses”, as rapid ships were called. Odysseus will be brought home by one of these race boats, compared by Homer with a four-in-hand with stallions (13,81). The name of the Porto de Naos remembers the fact that this race boat, almost back in Faiakia, had been changed by Poseidon in a rock just in front of the city (13,159 sq.). Poseidon threatened to close this city, already surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, off from the sea by a new mountain, an incident already predicted and told by Alkinoös (8,565) and confirmed in 13,172, which would be the end of the harbour and of fall economic possibilities for the island. Poseidon didn't execute his threat but only changed the ship in the ship-shaped rock that still lies in front of Arrecife, now connected to the island by a road.
The square around the temple of Poseidon was used as a shipyard for the production of ropes, sails and oars. The city possessed high walls with stockades and towers like other Gallo-German and British cities (Troy). Why would people build such walls, if there were no internal foes? This fortification served against pirates, like those mentioned by Homer: Thesprotes, Phoenicians, Taphians or even Achaeans, because Achilles and Odysseus himself practised piracy at certain times by making raids in hostile territory. For the inhabitants of Lanzarote, the Guanches, piracy formed for centuries a big problem indeed, which finally caused them to leave the coast and retreat into the mountains (Calvet). As for the huge stones, bedded deep in the earth, Calvet (p.128) mentions big, smooth stones on la Palma “bedded deep in the earth with more than 50 rock drawings” with images of spirals, meanders, circles, like we know from the Atlantic coastal areas in Galicia, England, Carnac etc. In 2016 I myself saw some remnants of old walls near the sea fort, that were excavated because of sewer construction.
So, all the elements of the above-cited fragment are present in Lanzarote: the two harbours, (the walls against) piracy and the huge stones (La Palma).

2. Relations with the surrounding areas

The following clause is important for the topography:

  This stranger, whose name I do not know, has come to
  my house in his travels from east or west. (8,29)

Alkinoös tells here that he doesn't know if the stranger, Odysseus, comes from west or east. Obviously north and south are not important. These lines are also applicable to Lanzarote, because to the north and south it doesn't have any mainland but only empty ocean. In the east lies Mauretania and in the west their commercial trading areas like Madeira, the Azores, the Caribbean islands and America.9
So, everybody who still believes Scheria is the Greek Corfu, where mainland is visible in all directions, will be refuted by these lines alone.

The following clause is in accordance with Lanzarote too:

  While you sleep they will row you over calm seas,
  till you come to your own house and country, or wherever
  else you wish, even if it lies beyond Euboia.
  Those of our people who took yellow-haired Radamanthus
  to visit Tituos, son of Earth, whom he wished to visit,
  saw that place and call it extremely far.
  They sailed there too, without effort completed their task,
  and yes, they returned home the selfsame day. (7,319)

Euboia is a place lying far beyond Ithaka, as Homer tells us. Euboia, the holy land of de Boii, so called because of the bohios (floating barracks, like the lake dwellings, e.g. in Austrian Hallstatt) has been identified as the southern coast of Les Landes, France.10 Radamanthos fled to this Euboia because some kind of jealousy of King Minos of Crete (=Scandinavia), and married there Herakles' mother Alkmene. Why did Radamanthos visit Tituos and where did they meet “extremely far away”? Mythology has no answers, but the following solution is possible. Radamanthos, whose name in Gallo-German means “raads-man”- counsellor, acted as Tituos' counsellor during his trial before judge Minos on the asfodele-meadow. There he had to stand trial for the alleged rape of Leto, concubine of Zeus.11 The same Tituos reappears in 11,569, where the punishment imposed by Minos is mentioned.
Anyhow, Alkinoös tells Odysseus that a Faiakan ship had once transported Radamanthos from Les Landes to “world's end”,  by which classical authors mean Zeeland (The Netherlands), where the asfodele-meadow has been identified. From Lanzarote this return trip has a distance of about 4700 km, which means an average speed in 24 hours of 200 km p.h. This seems unbelievable and ridiculous, but do not be surprised! Homer tells us explicitly that these Faiakan ships were magical, computerized ships with a built-in memory of harbours and courses, that ran faster than human thought! (7,35)
In any case, in the Atlantic setting Euboia (Les Landes) lies far beyond Ithaka (Cádiz and Jerez), the destination of Odysseus' home journey.
In 6,8 Homer tells us that Nausithoös had brought the Faiakans to Scheria with his fast ships. His own name Nausi-thoös means in itself “fast with ships”.
-Wilkens suggests (p.319) that Scheria is to be derived from Greek epischero- ' in a row', indicating the row of the Canaries. Against this derivation one could argue: a. that in that case, the meaning of Scheria would be “The Row” or “Row A”, which is insignificant, and b. that this etymology refers to a later Greek word. But derivations of names in the Atlantic world must primarily be found in the Gallo-German languages, not in Greek.
-Cailleux finds a connexion between the “lovely” Scheria (7,79) and the Spanish word xira (or jira)- 'party, banquette'. That is what Faiakans are especially fond of. They don't love wrestling and wars, but parties, dancing, music, sports, going out, drinking wine, fancy clothes, warm baths, relax beds. Besides, they are fervid rowers and sailors.12 During the few days, Odysseus spent with the Faiakans, he participates in a continuous series of xira's in the form of diners, lunches, games, dance parties and storytelling evenings. In Cailleux' vision Scheria is to be derived from Isla-xira (=party island) >Is(la)xira>Ischira>Scheria. Another possible derivation is from Phoen./Hebr. skera -'drunkenness'. In this derivation, an Iberian setting is discernible too.13
-The most striking and in my opinion irrefutable proof of the identification of Lanzarote as Faiakia is the fact that the ancient priestly caste of Lanzarote up to some centuries ago was called Faicas. Up to now the name Faycan is frequent in the Canaries and means, according to local people, 'king-priest'. Torriani wrote that every Guanche king had appointed a priest, he called Faicagh.14 In Homer, the Faycan who was highest in rank, Alkinoös, had also this two function: king and priest.
The name Faycan itself can be explained in two ways,  from Gallo-German vaeck -'sleep' or from vegen-'purge, cleanse'. Both derivations are confirmed by descriptions in the Odyssey. Sleep is a constant element in the Scheria story: Odysseus falls asleep on the bank of the river; he is sleeping while the Faiakans bring him home to Ithaka; Faiakans are fond of beds for sleep and relaxation (8,246). Therefore it is possible that Homer hints at such an etymology. The Faiakans are also lustrators or purgers, who receive Odysseus as a reborn soul, dress him in white, give him gifts and bring him home as the newly born king of Ithaka. According to this derivation, the Faycans of the Canaries are purging, lustrating priests.
-As for the history of the people, Homer gives us some information in the following fragment, that mentions their former homeland Hupereia:

  They had once lived in the very broad plains of Hupereia,
  neighbours to the Cyclops, aggressive men,
  more powerful than they, who continually robbed them.
  Godlike Nausithoös led the Faiakans from there
  to settle in Scheria far from busy men.
  He had the city ringed with a wall and built
  houses and temples for the gods, and divided the land into fields. (6,4 sq.)

Hupereia lies far away from Scheria and is inhabited by aggressive Cyclops. Wilkens thinks Homer indicates with this name 'huper-land' the mountainous area of Atlas, where the “round-eyed  Africans live (derivation of Cyclops: kuklos ops -circle eye). Against his theory one can argue that the Atlas region probably had been colonised by Gallo-Germans too, who certainly are nod “round-eyed”, and that line 4 speaks of “very wide plains”.
Cailleux' vision is more plausible (PA 264): Hupereia is Hiberia (Iberia). In that case, the Faiakans are Celtiberians with the same customs and language as Odysseus uses, which is in accordance with the texts. The Faiakans have a singer who perfectly knows the Gallo-German epopees about the Trojan War; they venerate the same gods like Athena and Poseidon and use the same Gallo-German form of hospitality.
The Faiakans migrated because of continuous attacks by Cyclops. Maybe these people are the same as the Cyclops Odysseus met during his wanderings across the Atlantic, people who don't acknowledge gods and laws and live by themselves. Their name has a possible connexion with “cyclopean, megalith” buildings and could mean something like “circle builders, cromlech makers”, with the connotation “Stone Age people”.
It is interesting that, if the connexion with Iberia is correct, circumstances 3000 years later were exactly reversed, when the offspring of the Celtiberians, the Spanish, about 1400 AD colonised these islands again. Then they discovered on Lanzarote a kind of “cyclopean people” who still lived in a sort of Stone Age state, the Guanches. However, these people were certainly not aggressive but built pyramids and circular cult places for their Sun god Abora (=Apollo?). On the contrary, the Guanches had to cope with aggressive “cultivated” European “Cyclops”, the Christian Spaniards, who made many of them slaves!  

4. Social and economic details
  And Alkinoös had fifty housemaids, some of whom
  ground golden corn on the millstone,
  others wove fabric, or twisted the yarn,
  hands flickering like the leaves of a tall poplar,
  while smooth oil dripped down from the densely woven,
  fine linen. As the Faiakans more than other men are skilled
  at handling ships on the sea, so the women are
  expert workers at the loom. (7,103 sq.)

-Economy
In these lines, Homer gives us a little insight into the economy of the island: fifty housemaids are busy grinding corn and producing oily fabrics for sails and sailing clothes15. The most important economic pillars for Faiakia were probably trade and shipping. The male population sails, the women take care of ship fabrics. This explains why everything in Faiakia indicates great luxury: richly decorated bedrooms (6,14), fancy clothes (21), pretty women (18), purple wool (53;306), golden oil bottles (79). See also the description of Alkinoös homestead (7,83 sq.): bronze thresholds, bronze reflective wall plating, golden gates, silver door-posts, silver and golden statues of dogs and torch carrying boys, purple pillows, purple balls (8,372 sq.), bronze swords with silver grip and ivory scabbard, golden talents and bowl. Only trade and oversea commerce could bring forth such a wealth, in particular the trade in purple and obsidian. It is a fact ignored by most scholars that the purple-snail, murex trapa, that gives fabrics a waterproof purple colour almost exclusively occurs at the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua and for that reason had to be transported across the Atlantic to Europe. One could very well conceive Scheria as a Phoenician transfer hub for purple, gold and silver they took from the America's already about 1200 BC. For this reason, D'Anville thought that Lanzarote and Fuerteventura were the Purpureae Insulae of antiquity (PA 268)16. Around the year zero king Juba of Mauretania made huge benefits from purple trade taking place on these islands, during his protracted wars against the Romans (source: Plinius).

-Political structure
Political structures on Scheria are equal to those on Ithaka: there is a council (boulé), in which the king could participate when invited for important matters. The council consists of protoi -'prominent nobles' (basileis-vassals: 6,54). They meet at an agora (-speaking square) close to the harbours, where smooth polished stones stood against each other in a circle (8,6), a kind of grandstand, where many Faiakans could find a place. Alkinoös' position in this reasonably democratic system is quite strong (6,197): “in whom the Faiakans vest their majesty and power”. In 8,2 Alkinoös is called “sacred king”. Greek hieron menos means “initiated priestly mind”. Alkinoös is the priest-king of the Faiakan territory: a Faycán as is explained above.
This political system is in accordance with the one the first chroniclers found with the Guanches on Gran Canaria: there was a king, assisted by a high priest (Faycán), and a council of nobles, the Sabor (Calvet p.33).

-Social system
Although Alkinoös fulfilled the most political function, it was his wife Aréte who actually pulled the strings. Through this Homer indicates that the political system on Scheria was, in fact, a matriarchy. Her name is symbolic, meaning “the adored one” or “she whom one can ask for help”. That is exactly what Odysseus according to Nausikaä has to do: ask her for help. Her pedigree (7,51) tells us that she is a great-granddaughter of Poseidon and niece of her husband Alkinoös. Her position on the island is very important: she is adored and venerated more than any other woman on earth, as if she were a goddess (7,67), is intelligent and settles disputes even between men. She decides if Odysseus gets his escort home. In short, as a woman, she has nearly divine status. That's why Odysseus at his departure (13,57) gives the bowl to Aréte. Drinking together out of one bowl is more common and indicates interconnectedness, but Odysseus gives her the bowl out of respect for her high position.
This matriarchal system is in accordance with the information chroniclers give us about the society of the Canaries. Wölfel speaks about a kind of Druidic school system on the islands, where economic and agricultural knowledge was transferred; there was also a high priestess on Gran Canaria with a cortège of lower priestesses who taught girls and guarded and managed all storage rooms, just as Aréte does, who from the storage rooms draws gifts for Odysseus. Because of their matriarchal institutions, the Guanches probably knew a mother goddess, called Achmayex, Achoron, Achamán, names that are strongly reminiscent of our Homeric Achaeans and indicate a religious cult like that of Nehalennia.17 Calvet too thinks (p.108) that on La Palma a mother goddess cult still existed during many centuries. At certain days of the month, people went to a pyramid to dance, practice sport and sing sad songs, a cult comparable with the cult of Ishtar, Isis, Tanit, Afrodite

and Nehalennia. Their mother goddess has later been converted by the Spaniards and their Catholic church in the Holy Virgin Mary.18
According to Berthelot19, the matriarchal constitution of Guanche society is an evident proof of the fact that their origins lie in Stone Age or at the latest in Bronze Age because in Asia Minor city building and agriculture have been developed from about 10000 BC and matriarchy was connected with it. Since the Odyssey must be placed in middle Bronze Age about 1200 BC, we shouldn't be surprised to find with the Faiakans a still working matriarchal society, because 2700 years later the new discoverers found it still working with the Faycáns of the Guanches!

5. Flora and Fauna

In the following text we read something about the flora of Scheria:

  Beyond the courtyard, but near to the doors, lies a
  large four-acre orchard, surrounded by hedges. Tall,
  heavily laden trees grow there, pear, pomegranate
  and apple, rich in glossy fruit, sweet figs
  and olive trees densely covered with berries.
  The fruit never rots or fails, winter or summer. Shortage
  is unknown. It lasts all year, and the West Wind’s
  breath quickens some to life, and ripens others,
  pear on pear, apple on apple, cluster on cluster of dates,
  and fig on fig.                 (7,112)

-Flora
There are high trees with pears, apples, figs, olives and pomegranates. There are also stafulai in the high trees, traditionally translated by “grapes”, which is absurd. Grapes don't grow in high trees, while the vineyards are subject of subsequent verses. So, grapes are not meant here. Cailleux translates “oranges” (PA 267), but they don't grow in clusters. The only fruit that can be meant are dates that grow in big clusters in high palm trees. In the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, the date palm is indigenous already for thousands of years.
A few lines further Homer speaks about a kitchen garden with vegetables growing throughout the year. West wind (Zefuros) creates constant humidity beneficial to growth. These descriptions of wind, air, fruits and vegetables go well with the Canaries exposed as they are expos to humid ocean winds. Calvet (p.61) confirms things, when he writes about the Canaries as seen by later Irish seafarers like Abbott Barinthus and Brendan (500 AD): “The Canaries once very much resembled the biblical paradise because they appeared as a landscape in a dream, surrounded by vegetable gardens and orchard, by which presumably the Guanche plantations and kitchen gardens were indicated. Among the fruit trees certainly were fig trees, mulberry trees (Arbutus unedo), the Canarian date palm (Phoenix Canariensis) as well as some wild apple species from nearby Africa.”

-Fauna
As far as the animals on the island are concerned: mules are mentioned, pulling Nausikaä's cart. They undoubtedly did well on rough, volcanic and mountainous Lanzarote. Pigs and cows are being slaughtered for lunch (8,6) and goat farming is demonstrated by the goatskin wine bag Nausikaä receives from her mother.
However, it is the dogs that awaken our astonishment. In front of the doors of Alkinoös' residence
are several golden and silver dogs lying as sphinxes along de driveway to protect the house for all eternity (7,87 sq.). On Gran Canaria, you can see a statue of the dogo canario, though not made of gold or silver.

It is quite possible that the popular etymology of the word Canaries is connected with this type of dog since Latin canis means 'dog'. However, it is noteworthy that the Guanche word for dog is kan, which could indicate a certain influence from the Roman world, as Calvet has it (p.34). This explanation can't be true: it would be like the Dutch replacing the Dutch word 'hond' by the English 'dog' because of contacts with English sailors. More plausible is that the root of kan and canis is Indo-European and that the word accompanied the first migrations (of Cro-Magnon people?) from Europe to the Canaries. The same Indo-European derivation can be found in the Guanche name for their sun god: Abora, that with the usual change -l- > -r- in my view indicates the well-known sun god Apollon (or Gallo-German Belen with -a-affix: A-belen). The word sabor (their senate, see above) also has a Gallo-German root: sap/sab - to know (Lat. sapere; Sp. saber; Fr. savoir), so that Sabor, in fact, means: "Council of the Wise". These examples prove that Faiakans and Guanches have the same Gallo-German origins!

6. Customs and habits
-Hospitality
In 7,157 an old custom emerges: hospitality. Among the Faiakans, this was a rare phenomenon, since they lived far from the civilised world and had little contact with strangers. Faiakan hospitality means that a stranger immediately is provided with food, shelter, clothing and an escort home and only at his departure is asked for his identity. According to Cailleux (p.270), this custom is a copy of the hospitality of mainland Mauritania, Morocco and Algeria, where the stranger on entering their tent village (douar) is treated exactly like Odysseus. Only at the end of the visit, one would ask the stranger for his name and he would tell his story to the gathered curious villagers. Besides, this Faiakan hospitality is normal practice in the Gallo-German world too, which indicates the interconnectedness between the Atlantic world and these faraway colonies.

-Dancing
In 8,250 Homer speaks of Betarmones dancers. This special name can
t be satisfactory explained through Greek etymology; the Scholiast derives the word from bainein en harmoniai  - “go in harmony”, but doesn't explain the infix -t-. Cailleux derives the word from Baetis and Baeturia, the Spanish river Guadalquivir and the region south of and around Sevilla. Betar-mones are in his vision Baetur-men, men from the Baetis, where flamenco music and dance are still performed. This Iberian derivation fits to what has been said about the name Scheria (from xira- party, fiesta): Faiakans are fond of dancing, sports etc. Another type of dance is performed by Alkinoös' sons in 8,375: a complicated dance game with a ball.
This Faiakan lifestyle is confirmed by Calvet's comments about the Guanches. He tells us that their cult places, called Guarachos (Sp.: bailaderos), consisted of a square of tamped earth,, where they made sacrifices and asked for rain, but also organised sports events, in which a combination of plays, dancing and sports was performed.
Gideon (p.191) points to the particularity of the lucha Canaria – Canarian wrestling, a traditional sport, practised there since time immemorial. In the sand a circle is made in which the two opponents try to push each other down. This sport is performed with much respect for the opponent. This description is in accordance with the image Homer sketches of Faiakan sports activities.

Conclusions
The conclusion of our investigation is that identification of Lanzarote as the Isle of Scheria, which had been done on the basis of routes, courses, wind directions and distances, without exception is confirmed by all details mentioned by Homer. It concerns the double harbour, the surroundings, the names, trade and shipping, matriarchy, flora, fauna and customs.


Notes:
1. English translations of Homer (with changes by G.W.J.Janssen) from Kline, A.S., Homer - The Odyssey.
2. See Introductions Troy, Ithaka, Kalupso in Homeros Odyssee by Gerard Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018 and http://www.homerusodyssee.nl/id12.htm
3. See the scheme of wind directions in I.J.Wilkens Where Troy Once Stood, p. 224.
4. 8,36; 13,18 and Introduction Navigation in Homeros Odyssee.
5. See Introduction Religion in Homer, ibid.
6. The bay is Unesco World Heritage and still in use as a salina, like it probably was in early times.
7. See Introduction Religion in Homer, ibid.
8.C.Calvet Gechichte und Mythen der Kanaren, Leipzig 2007 p.69.  See his book for all information about Guanches.
9. See Introduction  Phoenicia and Purple. ibidem.
10. See Introduction Lesbos, ibidem.
11. See for all details about the asfodele meadow and the trial of the dead: Introduction Religion and Hades, ibid.
12  See e.g. 6,309;8,246.
13  See Introduction Atlantic Authors s.v. Cailleux, esp. La Judée en Europe, Paris 1894, ibidem.
14  L.Torriani Descripción de las Islas Canarias, 1587. For lustration and initiation rites see Introduction Kirke, ibid.
15  See Introduction Navigation, ibid.
16  D'Anville J.B.B. Géographie Ancienne et Abrégé, 1769.
17  Wölfel D,J, Revista de Historia nr 105/8 (1954) en Kunkel G. Biogeography and Ecology in the Canary Islands, Den Haag 1976.
      For Nehalennia see Introduction Nehalennia, ibidem.
18  E.g. on Lanzarote she is venerated as Nuestra Señora de los Remedios in Yaiza, while the crescent moon symbolises the tides, in particular those of the Helion River.
19  Berthelot S. /Barker-Webb P Histoire Naturelle des Iles Canaries II,2 p.229-252 Parijs 1839.

Abbreviations used for the books of Th. Cailleux (1878):
OC  Origine celtique de la civilisation de tous les peuples
PH  Poésies d' Homère
PA   Pays Atlantiques, decrit par Homère
Citations of Homer: Roman cyphers = Ilias, e.g. XX,345; Arabic cyphers = Odyssey, e.g. 13,34.

Bibliography Atlantic authors:
Homeros Odyssee, by Gerard Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018 (= H.O.)
Gideon E. Troje lag in Engeland, Deventer 1991, reprint of Homerus, zanger der Kelten, 1973
Grave Ch.J. De  République des Champs Élysées, Gent 1806, 3 parts.
Vinci F. The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales, 2005
Wilkens I.J. Where Troy once stood, 1990,
                   Dutch: Waar eens Troje lag, 2015 Leeuwarden.

Series: Odysseus' First Voyage
- part 1: Troy- Gog Magog Hills, England
- part 2: Ismaros and the Kikonen - Brittany
- part 3: Lotophages - Senegal
- part 4: Cyclopes - Fogo, Madeira, Cameroon
- part 5: Aiolia andAiolos - Corvo (Azores)
- part 6: Laestrygones - Cuba, La Havana
- part 7: Aiaia and Kirke - Schouwen, Zeeland
- part 8: Hades-Walcheren, Zeeland

Series: Odysseus' Second Voyage
- part I:   Tenedos-Thanet and the Seirenes;
- part II:  Skulla, Charubdis -St. Michael's Mount
- part III: Thrinakia-Cornwall
- part IV: Ogygia- Azores, Kalupso;
- part V:   Scheria-Lanzarote;
- part VI: Ithaka-Cádiz, Jérez