TROY-GOG MAGOG | ISMAROS-BRITTANY | KUTHERA-SENEGAL | CYCLOPES-MADEIRA, FOGO, CAMEROON | AIOLIA-CORVO | LAISTRUGONIA-CUBA, LA HAVANA | AIAIA-KIRKE | HADES-WALCHEREN
ATLANTIC TROY AT THE WASH
English translation of preface and Introduction Troy from PDF-download
Homer Odyssey, Odysseus' wanderings across the Atlantic Ocean
by Gerard Janssen
(original title: Homeros Odyssee: De zwerftochten van Odysseus op de Atlantische Oceaan, vertaling Gerard Janssen, 2018 Leeuwarden, NL, isbn 9789076792286)
This is the first edition of a translation and commentary on Homer's Odyssey, based on the so-called Atlantic Theory, that has been developed from the 19th century up to now by the ideas of De Grave, Cailleux, Gideon and Wilkens who, being not satisfied with the traditional interpretation of Homer , scrupulously scrutinized all geographical, meteorological, nautical and cultural details of Ilias and Odyssey and looked for incongruities in the traditional paradigm that places both poems in the Mediterranean, makes Troy a town in Turkey and sees Achaeans as Greeks. The outcome of their investigations was that the old ideas are based on beliefs and dogmas instead of on rational arguments. They proved that:
-Troy could not have stood in Turkey;
-Achaeans, Danans, Argaeans are not the same as Greeks;
-Odysseus could never have been wandering for ten years in the Mediterranean.
On the basis of these conclusions, the authors looked for the right setting and the correct geography of Homer, using all kinds of arguments and secondary evidence. Thereby we have to consider that as far as the Bronze Age, Homeric backgrounds and the search for the real scene are concerned nothing is certain. Meanings of simple Homeric words are uncertain, let alone religious ideas and rites. Archaeology can help us a little, as far as the material part of Bronze Age is concerned, but falls short in explaining philosophical, social and religious backgrounds. Therefore this edition has no intention to settle any truth or create a new dogma but will try to find possible solutions, based on a cohesive theory about culture, religion, and history applicable to all details of Homer's texts.
For example, the words ambrosia and nektar, which are used for the food of the gods and of the horses of Poseidon, have never been well explained. We don't know what this food was like: one cannot find it in museums. However, Cailleux developed a coherent theory about the primordial Gallo-German religion, giving a central place to concepts of mummification, rebirth, and reincarnation that can be traced down everywhere in Homer. People used tar and amber for mummification. So, are these materials somehow connected with the words ambrosia and nektar, derived from nek-tar = corpse tar? We know from recent discoveries that tar was already known in the Stone Age, produced by heated beech bark, while amber has been found in big quantities along the shores of the Baltic and the North Sea.
Of course, this is only a theory and other solutions are possible, but so far is this the only logical and valid theory ever produced.
Apart from a new geographical setting, the Atlantic Theory gives us a deeper insight into the real meaning of the Odyssey. The Atlantic authors discovered several layers in the story, of which the first, the superficial one, is the myth itself with all kinds of extravagant creatures like nymphs, gods, giants, cannibals, magic veils etc.1 The second layer is less obvious and only understandable for experienced seafarers, who can take advantage from the mass of hidden nautical hints concerning ports of call, wind directions, distances, currents, dangers, courses. To call the Odyssey a kind of pilot for the Atlantic is is a little overdrawn, but following closely the courses and distances mentioned by Homer and drawing them in a sea chart, we can easily situate a large part of Odysseus' wanderings on the Atlantic. This is an impossible operation for the Mediterranean because these waters are too small for the mentioned distances. The third and deepest layer is the story of the initiation of the apprentice Odysseus in the religion of Kirke, his nearly-dead experience at the Acheron, his ordeals, and en his resurrection as the newly born king of Ithaka.
All Atlantic authors use the name Celts or Proto-Celts for the inhabitants of the regions because Homer himself calls the very famous mother of the Celts by name, Galathea (XVIII,45). Some archaeologists say, however, that this name cannot be used before the Halstatt period (800-500 BC) for the Bronze Age civilisation, while others like to call all Bronze Age urnfield cultures Celtic. To avoid this kind of difficulties I use the name Gallo-German for the civilization of Western and Northern Europe, starting from the Neolithic onwards. Cailleux and Wilkens draw attention to the enormous technical knowledge the Gallo-Germans possessed in the field of shipbuilding, weaponry, battle cars, roads, agricultural instruments, salt exploitation, mining etc., of which several elements are mentioned passingly and as a matter of fact by Homer but bear witness of a very well developed society. This is our western civilization of millennia ago. The Homeric heroes are our ancestors.
Abbreviations for the books of Th. Cailleux:
OC Origine celtique de la civilisation de tous les peuples
PH Poésies d' Homère
PA Pays Atlantiques, decrit pas Homère
Citations of Homer: Roman cyphers = Ilias, e.g. XX,345; Arabic cyphers = Odyssey, e.g. 13,34.
TROY: AN INTRODUCTION
Why Hissarlik is not Troy
An extended file of arguments is to be found in the books of Th. Cailleux (available in French in reprint and online) and Iman J. Wilkens (still available in English and Dutch).2
The most important arguments are:
1 The size of the city
After H.Schliemann had excavated Hissarlik in 1880 and contended he found the Homeric Troy,
the whole academic world decided after some period of doubt to share his views, including all Troy excavators. The last of them, Mr. Korfmann even fantasized an enormous suburb outside the acropolis, obviously to house the 20.000 50.000 inhabitants that lived in the city according to Homer but based his conclusions on the finding of some little walls and a tunnel. J.H.Blok accused him of treachery because he created an image of Troy VIIa as a big city with commercial interests in the then known world.3 However, Hissarlik isn't like one of the big centers Ugarit or Knossos. According to Homer Troy itself has to be a big borough and a religious center, but Hissarlik VIIa was a modest settlement with only a couple of dozen inhabitants. J.H.Jongkees says: The area of Hissarlik is only two hectares, something like a big square in a modern city.4
2.The region Frugia.
Homer describes the Trojans many times as Frugians. The time of the presence and influence of Frugians in Asia Minor is well established by research and archaeological evidence. We only can speak of Frugians in Asia Minor from the beginning of the 8th century. As to the four centuries before that time no traces whatsoever have been found of the presence of Frugians around Hissarlik or elsewhere in Asia Minor. Only after 800 BC started the colonization of Asia by Greeks and Thracians.5
3. Mycenaean palace cultures destroyed
If the destruction of Hissarlik VIIa has to be set in approximately 1180 BC, as is the traditionally accepted date, it is a strange complication that the palaces of Pulos, Mycenae, Knossos, and many others throughout the Levant, from which the great kings departed, were already destroyed, probably by the Sea People, during the big Catastrophe that took place from 1300 -1200 BC. Even M. Wood had to admit that, if the destruction of Troy is dated at the end of Troy VIIa, there is no archaeological evidence of a Homeric Troy at Hissarlik. This destruction is generally described to raids of pirates or Sea People like the Ekwesh or Sequani.
4. The motives for the war
The alleged motives for the Trojan War, commercial interest and control of the access to the Black Sea, aren't plausible, because there have been found only a few traces of Bronze Age commercial relations between Hissarlik and the Black Sea. Greek colonies on the shores of this sea are all later than 800 BC, and Homer doesn't write anything about a Trojan fleet.
A second motive, the 'cultural clash between Europe and Asia', as some authors call it, is not supported by Homer, because both superpowers have the same culture, gods and religion and speak the same language, except a few Trojan allies who speak different languages (II,804). So apart from the ravishment of Helena by Paris, there are no plausible motives that justify such a major war.
5.Achaean camp and coastline
The modern coastline of Hissarlik is different from the Bronze Age coastline. Landing in the area of marshes, passing the city of Hissarlik, is impossible. Therefore some supposed that the landing took place at the Bay of Besika on the west coast of Turkey. However, Homer never tells us about the Achaeans continually crossing two rivers flowing through the battlefield. The Besika Bay is not open to the Boreas wind that caused the Achaeans many problems pushing high seas to the shore (XIV,394). The beach where the 1186 vessels had to find their place must also be very wide and possesses a long mouth (XIV,36). Let us assume that the minimal width per vessel takes 20 meters, then the beach must have a longitude of 20 kilometers, or in double rows 10 km (XIV,35). The Besika Bay is only 2,5 km wide and has no long mouth. The so-called Scamander and Simoeis rivers don't flow together far before the camp, as Homer tells us.
If one takes all the data from Homer together, it is impossible that the camp was situated near Hissarlik.
6. The Hellespontos
The Achaean camp near Troy lies according to Homer at the wide gulf of the Hellespontos and the Ocean, not on the Aegean shores.6 The Dardanelles, called Hellespontos by the Greeks, form a narrow channel and aren't the immeasurable, endless water masses of Homer. In XXIII,230 this sea is called the Thracian Sea. Thrace to the north of Greece was not called Thrace in Homeric times, because this region had not yet been colonized by Gallo-Germans. Thereby, Thrace is an Atlantic name, because Thraké is one of Okeanos' daughters.
Achilles sees the sun rising near his tents above the Ocean, which means that his camp must overlook an eastern Ocean not a western Aegean Sea.7
7. Nine rivers
In XII,18 Homer tells us how Poseidon and Apollo let eight rivers, that flow from the Ida Hills toward the sea, hit against the Achaean camp walls for nine days in a row so that eventually it was leveled to the ground. The names of these rivers are Resos, Heptaporos, Karesos, Rodios, Granikos, Aisopos, Skamander and Simoeis. A ninth river, Satnioeis, didn't have his source at Ida and had no part in the destruction. These rivers are called big, broadly-streaming, with deep flood streams and the Skamander is deeper than the great hero Achilles is tall. One glance on the map of the bay of Hissarlik shows that there are no nine big, deep rivers around and none flowing in the Besika bay, and certainly no tidal rivers! The so-called Scamander in Turkey had during the visit of Xerxes and his army not even enough water for his horses. In summer the river is dry, in winter there is even not enough water for a goose to swim in.8
This argument is so strong that one can say that the person who finds these nine rivers around a Bronze Age settlement anywhere in Europe automatically has discovered the battlefield of the Trojan War. In Hissarlik no traces have been found of a major, long term war, no enormous hoards of bronze swords, horse bits, chariot parts etc., as have been found in the plain on The Wash, alongside the Cam, the former (S)cam-ander.
8. Tides and currents
From several explicit clauses in Homer, we can deduce that the Ocean has currents and tidal movements.9 Implicitly he tells us so in the story of Nausikaä putting the freshly washed clothes on the pebbles to dry. There the sea washes the pebbles continually clean onto the land (6,95), which can only mean that the sea at high tide washes the pebbles clean up to many meters, in any case enough to spread all the clothes on the pebbles. This would be impossible on the 10 centimeters ebb and flood difference normal in the Mediterranean. At low tide, the clothes can be put on the pebbles that in the meantime have been dried up by the sun.
Explicitly, XVIII,399 has three terms that are only applicable to the Ocean:
-Okeanos apsorroös -Ocean with the ebb current; -roös Okeanou- current of the Ocean; -reën aspetos he flowed endlessly.
Another interesting clause is II,151 sqq.: They cleared the traction gutters, to pull and push the huge seaworthy Achaean vessels into the Ocean (North Sea). Evidently, the Achaeans had parked their ships as high as possible on the beach, using dugout gutters. To help them pull the ships ashore and again into the sea they had to make use of high tide, even spring tide.
In XXIII,61 we read that Achilles together with many Murmidonians was lying on the beach of the loudly roaring sea crying his heart out on a clean spot, where the (tidal) waves always washed the sand. Here too it is obvious that so many men couldn't lie on a 10 centimeter wide tidal strip of Mediterranean sand. The iterative form kluzeskon -washes always indicates the repeated process of tides.
This 8th argument is also very strong. The Mediterranean has neither currents nor tides of any significance, except for the narrow straits like Gibraltar and Bosporus. This is irrefutable evidence for the Atlantic setting of Ilias and Odyssey.
What about Homeric names in the Mediterranean?
Homeric names like Achaeans, Troy and Ilion seem to appear in the Hittite correspondence as Ahhijawa, Wilusa, and Turuisa. In the Hittite name Alaksandus one can read Alexander, the other name of Paris. On Linear-B tablets from Crete names like atana (Athene), diwonosyo (Dionysos), pulo (Pulos), toroja (Troia) has been discovered.
If these translations of Hittite and Linear-B words are correct, it confirms previous remarks about immigration by Sea Peoples. The influx of Achaeans, Trojans, and other tribes not only took place around 1300 -1200, although in that period an enormous wave of destruction seems to have been spilled out over the Mediterranean coasts. Much earlier, from 2000 BC onwards, there are traces of foreign Sea People, who served as defense troops in the army of the Pharao's or are described as aggressors on the temple walls of Ramses III. All handbooks tell us about the immigration waves of Aeolian and Ionian people starting around 2000 BC. It is therefore well imaginable that tribal and geographical names from the northern and western parts of Europe in an early stage have been introduced into the Mediterranean.
Furthermore, Mr. Easton proved that the Alaksandus of the Hittites can only be connected with Troy VI (1295 BC) and that the Ahhinawa are never mentioned as enemies in Muwatalli's archives. More important is that Homer himself nowhere mentions a Hittite Empire, although the great Trojan War for 10 years would have taken place on its important western borders! So, according to Easton, it is impossible from Hittite sources to prove the historicity of a Trojan War in Turkey.10
Doubts about Homer in antiquity
Many classical authors already ventilated doubts about the Greekness of Homer.
1. Thucydides (460-400 BC): the capital of Agamemnon's vast empire, Mycenae, was never more than a little village in Greece, as it is still today. Only from 700 BC, the Greek would be able to build seagoing vessels. So, neither the Ilias nor the Odyssey is in his vision plausible in the Mediterranean.11
2. Plato (400 BC) had serious doubts about the Greek roots of Homer and considered his works as a danger for Greek morality.
3. Herodotus (450 BC), born in Halikarnassos, south of Hissarlik, knows nothing about the origins or historicity of the texts of Homer and in despair approaches Egyptian priests for information!
4. Strabo (64 BC-23 AD) thought that Homer was very well informed about the tides and currents of the Atlantic Ocean and that certain stories undoubtedly took place somewhere on the Ocean shores, like Kirke, Kalypso, the Faiakans, the Lotophages. Strabo touched the core of the truth, but because he still lived in the tradition of a Troy in Asia Minor, he couldn't find a consistent and logical geographical image of the Odyssey.
5. Eratosthenes (200 BC) couldn't find any similarity between the Greek and the Homeric world and therefore rejected all historicity of Homer's works.
6. Claudianus (400 AD) believed that the Hades of book 11 must have been at the mouth of the river Rhine, near the altar of Ulixes and Laertes, mentioned by Tacit, near Zierikzee, on an island between Gaul, Brittany, and the Rhine. He appears to have hit the truth!
7. Seneca ( 50 AD) suggests that Odysseus couldn't have traveled such distances on the Mediterranean and must have been extra notum nobis orbem- outside the known world , which means outside the Pillars of Hercules (Letters 88,7).
8. Dio Chrysostomos (100 AD) accuses Homer of falsification. Stories about Helena, Paris, the wooden horse etc. are sheer fantasies. According to him, the Achaean army had actually been defeated by the Trojans and their leaders had been confronted with enemies in their homelands, like indeed was the fate of Odysseus, Diomedes, Agamemnon, Ajax, and others. According to him, Greece had been collapsed by the invasion of the Dorian tribes.
Kaart van de destructies van de paleizen
Dio was right in thinking the Trojan war could never have been in Greece and Turkey because of the weakness and meaninglessness of the region in those times. Had he known the true geography, he never could have described Homer as a liar, because he would have known that Egypt in Homer means a big rain river in France (Seine) and that the stories about the Achaeans and their big war came along with the invaders from the European coasts who during many centuries infiltrated the Mediterranean.13
Where Troy once stood
This is the title of Iman Wilkens' book (1990-2012), in which he further developed Th. Cailleux' theory (1879) in the following aspects:
The Achaeans are allied inhabitants of the continent from the south of Spain unto the Baltic Sea;
they went to war with the British Empire under King Priam who had his center near Cambridge on the Gog Magog Hills;
the motive was not the ravishing of Helena, although piracy was a major problem in those days, but the shortage of tin for bronze weaponry.
the literary tradition: the stories about Troy and Odysseus have been handed over in writing or orally by the migrants known as Sea People, who conquered from 1300 onward the Mediterranean during the so-called Katastrofé and everywhere destroyed existing palace cultures. They tried even to invade Egypt during the Ramses III government and finally settled down in Greece and the Levant during the last wave of Dorian immigrants. Fact is that these Sea People have been identified by Ramses around 1200 BC and their names carved in stone. Their origins must lay somewhere along the coasts of the Atlantic.
Why are there so many similarities between the Greek and Homeric names?
The explanation is simple. Migrants always give new rivers, regions, mountains, cities, tribes the well-known names of their respective homelands. For example, in the USA are many places with Dutch names, like Holland, Zeeland, Harlem (Haarlem), Brooklyn (Breukelen), New-Amsterdam (=New-York). If Homer were from Greece, it is very strange that more than 60% of all his geographical names cannot be identified in Greece at all. In particular, the names of Trojan rivers are a headache for Hissarlik-adepts. Mr. Wilkens, on the contrary, could identify nearly all these Homeric names of rivers in England (see map). All other geographical names he could identify somewhere in western Europe from Spain to the Baltic. Ithaka appeared to be Cadiz and Jerez, Sidonia is situated in the south of Spain and the kingdom of mighty Agamemnon included nearly the whole of France with his center around Troyes (!).
These identifications solve a lot of problems:
the 1186 ships had enough space at the southern beach of The Wash and one could find enough material to build artificial dunes to protect the vessels;
the battlefield was large enough to use the chariot as battle taxies for the heroes,
The Wash is open tot the Boreas winds as is mentioned by Homer, and the sun rises from the east out of the Ocean (=North Sea = Hellespontos);
the Gog Magog Hills (50-70 m heigh) have enough space for a city of 20.000 inhabitants;
the tides and currents are there; the waves are always grey; storms are ever present; the weather is cold etc.
the distances, as mentioned by Homer, can be easily measured and transferred on Atlantic sea charts.
|map of Trojan battlefield by I.J.Wilkens
Wilkens' detailed map shows that from Gog Magog to the Achaean camp there were no rivers, dividing the battlefield. The war dikes or war bridges as Homer calls them are still present in the landscape waiting for your visit. No commentary on Homer has ever solved this war-dikes-problem. They are the Devil's Dyke and the Flan Dyke, who obviously had military functions. Important to see is that the ditches are at the land side not at the seaside of the dikes. This means they were built to protect the ships and not the city on the Gog Magog Hills.14 Excavations around Gog Magog bring out more and more data belonging to the Bronze Age. The Wandlebury Ring, for decades considered as an Iron Age monument, appears to be much older now. In all museums around the Wash, Cambridge, Kings Lynn, Bury St. Edmunds, Oxford etc. are enormous quantities of bronze to be seen, especially of weaponry. In Peterborough on The Wash there is an exclusive Bronze Age museum. All these finds and facts can only lead to one conclusion that around the Cam there existed an impressive Bronze Age civilization and culture.15 According to Taylor The Wash offered good sea transport to the continent and the north of England, while inland rivers like the Nene, Welland, Ouse, Cam offered internal transport possibilities by little ships. Finds of gold, amber, faïence, and tin indicate connexions with Cornwall, Ireland, Northern Europe and even Egypt.
Are there Homeric clauses that confirm the identifications?
If the location of Troy near The Wash is correct, all other geographical, toponymic and meteorological data must be in accordance with it. In the case of the Atlantic theory, these demands seem justified, although in the case of the Hissarlik theory no such demands are ever put forwards and nearly all indications about distances, winds, relative positions, rivers, and names lead to utter impossibilities and inconsistencies! Need the Hissarlik theory not be in accordance with Homer? However, beforehand I can tell that every clause in Homer can be consistently and unambiguously explained in the Atlantic setting. The commentaries to the different translated books give the full explanation. Some examples will suffice here.
1. Troy, the land of horses
This epithet for Troy is frequently used (e.g. 2,15). Troas has so many horses that one of Priam's ancestors possessed some 3000 mares apart from the foals (XX,221). They grazed in marshy areas and were so lovely that Boreas fell in love with them and, disguised as a horse, begot 112 foals!
Is Troy in England that splendid land of horses? Yes, it is. Up to now, this region is well known for its horses (e.g. Newmarket) while the oldest traces of horses in East-Anglia are some 700.000 years old! Domestication started around 2500 BC. Excavations brought up Bronze Age horse bits, chariot parts, and wheels, for example in Flag Fen, the swampy area where according to the Atlantic authors the battlefield was located. The love of Mr. Boreas is logic because The Wash is open to the north. Furthermore, we know the Uffington White Horse Bronze Age monument and we know from Caesar that in his time the British went to battle with thousands of chariots.
2. The climate of Troy
If Troy once stood in England, Homer would certainly give some hints about the English climate, characterized by mist, rain, ice, hoarfrost, snow, and much wind. See what Homer says in 14,472 sq. He tells that around Troy there are reeds, bushes, and puddles, in short, a marshy area like that between the Gog Magog Hills and The Wash before the canalization of the Cam. It is very cold because of a blast from the north wind; snow and icy water fall down, causing a layer of hoarfrost on the shields. Immediately one could imagine a polar cold front passing by. In III,1-10 Homer speaks about endless showers, winter storms and mist around Troy that causes the cranes to leave the country, cross the Ocean and attack the Pygmaeans, that live in Cameroon! Homer never tells us how nice the weather in Troas is, which one could expect if Troy was a Mediterranean town. Viticulture is not known around Troy, because the Achaean army imports wine from southern countries from far over the broad sea (IX,71), from Thrace (= Brittany in France) or from Lemnos (=Montfort d' Lemnos in Portugal, VII,465), as little as fig and olive trees (see PH 174-179). Often Troy is called very windy.
So, all indications about climate in Homer confirm the location in England.
13,238 sq. are important verses giving geographical indications about the location of Troy. Odysseus has just been put ashore in Ithaka by the Faiakans and asks a passing shepherd boy, alias goddess Athena, where for heaven's sake he is now because he doesn't recognize his own country. Athena names in this clause three wind directions: the east, by which is meant the Mediterranean, because we are now in Cadiz, South-Spain; the misty west somewhere there behind, which indicates the Ocean west of Cadiz with Madeira, the Azores, the Caribbean, and even America. Because Cadiz lies in the south of Europe, the clause even in Troy that seems to be far from the Achaean land, as we hear must indicate the region north of Cadiz, which is exactly the relative position of The Wash compared with Cadiz. It is clear that seen from the Greek island of Theaki, these indications have no value at all. Hissarlik lies east from Theaki, not north, and is not far away from the Achaean land. To the west is Italy and to the east mainland Greece. Ofcourse Theaki is known in these countries, her neighbors! Even a boy of Theaki would have heard of Hissarlik if it was Troy, but for a boy in Cadiz, The Wash is so far away (2600 km) that it could be unknown to him (as we hear).
So, implicitly Homer indicates in this clause the relative position of the English Troy.
4. Chryses and his daughter Cryseïs from Chrysa
In I,37 sq. some places are mentioned that fall under the realm of Apollo, whose priest Chryses had asked for the extradition of his daughter ravished by Achilles during one of his raids in the south (Lesbos, Lemnos among other places, identified as Brittany and Wight). Because Chryses came by foot along the sea to the Achaean camp (I,34), we have to look for an area to the south not too far from Troy. When Odysseus brought back the daughter, he went by ship, which means that Chryses' homeland sees to water, especially an estuary with many depths or mooring places (limenos polubentheos: I,432). Neither time of departure nor length of the voyage are given, but a 24 hours sailing is acceptable, because they arrive in the early morning, unload the ship and still have the whole day for singing hallelujahs to Apollo. One glance on the map shows that after 24 hours sailing from the Wash one arrives in the estuary of the river Thames (=Temese), where a temple of Apollo was located near the monastery of Thorney, the later abbey of Westminster (PH 309).16 This delubrum (temple) was destroyed by an earthquake during the reign of Antoninus Pius and demolished by king Sebert, who built the church of St. Peter in its place.
If this is the correct area of Chryses, all other names and places have to be found there too: Chrusa, Tenedos, Killa, Smintheus, Silverbow.
Silverbow (argurotox) is a fixed epithet for Apollo and refers to Silvertown, an island and district of London, the old Troia Nova, and to the Bow, a meander in the Thames near the old delubrum Apollinis. Smintheus, as Apollo is also called, has been explained by Cailleux (PH 345) as follows. The name Apollo or Belen means nothing more than de bel-ain, the white or cleansing ebb stream. The most important bel-ain was the river Helion at the continent, read as Helios = Sun. Helion is the name of the downstream reincarnation river Maas (Meuse, Mosa), symbolized by a mouse. That is why Apollo was called the Mouse god, in Greek Smintheus. The traditional explanations of the word are less significant. So Wilkens tells us (p.109) that mice could bring diseases like the pest and that Apollo because he could cure them, was called Mouse God. But in that case, this name would actually mean: Protector of mice, not Destroyer of mice!
Wilkens identifies without arguments the three places Chrysa, Killa and Tenedos with three places downstream the Thames: Grays (or Crayford, river Cray), Chilham and the Isle of Thanet. Cailleux, on the contrary, has more ingenious arguments for his identifications. Chrusa would be derived from chrusos- gold and is a Greek translation of the Gallo-German gilde, which by its roots is related to gold, guild, gulde. Gilde was the name for a religious brotherhood in the same way as the word later was used for professional brotherhoods., de guilds. Chryses came with a gold scepter to the Achaean fleet, a guild-staff. The building where the brothers lived or worked was called Kill, by which Killa could be explained.17 Therefore, Chryses must have been the Guild Leader, the Father Prior of his Apollo Kill, where he performed his rites between oak stems and beech hedges. Later these oak stems became the stone pillars of the Gothic church of Westminster. His own residence is called Chrusa by Homer, meaning Gulda or Guild, and could have been the later Guild Hall in London. Guild Hall has a second meaning gilded hall, referring to the privilege of the guilds to decorate their façades with gold (e.g. the Guild Hall in Brussels). Is it a coincidence that in the hall of the Guild Hall are two huge statues of Gog and Magog, who in earlier times would have defended London? Their names are already mentioned by Ezechiël (38 and 39,2,6), who speaks about a notorious man of arms from the far north, Gog from Magog!
Furthermore, with the Achaean sacrifices on the banks of the Thames (I,432 sq,) Homer describes according to Cailleux the annual expiation rites and the Apollo banquet of the Guilda-brotherhood. After that, the participants sing for one whole day splendid paians for Apollo with the intention to soften his temper, so as to end the epidemic pest. Paians means songs of expiation, because paian is a Greek transliteration of the Saxonian word pawn, indicating that the participants of the paian publicly express their regrets for their bad behavior and promise guarantees for good behaviour.18
The last name Tenedos is by both authors connected with Thanet (Tanatus), a former island where existed a second religious center near (East)-Minster. See Introduction Tenedos.
Conclusion: all names and places of the Chryse-clause have been easily explained and identified at the mouth of the Thames. Only there these names can find a logical coherence. Every attempt to find an equal system in Turkey has been and will be doomed to failure.19
|Rock drawing of a labyrinth in Galicia, Spain
|Gideon (p.125) and Wilkens (p.125 sq,) mentioned prehistoric labyrinths, carved in rock or built with stones on earth. In England they are still called 'Troy towns' or 'Walls of Troy', in Wales 'Caerdroia' and in Scandinavia 'Trojaborgs'.These labyrinths must have had a primordial model in the city of Troy. Homer tells us in XX,145 that Troy had an earthen wall, put up on all sides around (amfichuton teichos). This appears to mean: a circular wall or dike or rather a system of earthen walls turning inwards like a labyrinth, of which several examples still exist in Europe. Such a labyrinth symbolizes the womb and reincarnation. Wilkens sees in the name Troy a root trua- meaning make a circular movement around a stable center (Latin trua is a little spoon to stir). In German this kind of movement is called wenden and a spiral is a Wendel: hence the name Wendelburg. The Wandlebury Ring on Gog Magog has this Saxonian background and is a memory of the former city of Troy.
6. The war dikes
one of the war dykes
The existence of war dikes in the plain of the Cam is confirmed by Homer in several clauses, e.g. XVI,395, where he tells that Patroklos drove back the Trojans towards the ships, not allowing them to reach Troy. Between the ships, the river (Skamander=Cam) and the high dike he set up a massacre. See also map Wilkens.
These high dikes are elsewhere called war bridges or war dikes (ptolemou gefurai), as in XI,620, where Homer tells us that after a massacre by Agamemnon horses pulled their empty chariots rattling across the war bridges because the drivers had been fallen off.
In VIII,553 we see how the Trojans, now sovereign on the battlefield, make campfires on top of the war dikes. Because most commentaries have no idea what the meaning is of these war dikes, they translate it with completely inappropriate terms like battlefields or frontiers.
In case that one wonders why these dikes are left to us in contrast to the walls of the shipping camp, built with stones, earth, and stockades, one has only to read XII, 6 sq., to see how the gods Poseidon, Apollo and Zeus, furious because the Achaean people had failed to make a sacrifice before building the ship wall, annihilated the wall completely by producing huge rainfall during nine days in a row, diverting river beddings and letting the floods from the Hellespontos come in. After the destruction of the wall Poseidon equalized the ground and covered the long beach again with plenty of sand and as far as the rivers concerns he put them back in their normal beddings. That's why no trace of the Achaean ship wall has been left.
7. The rivers Simoeis and Skamander
As for the Simoeis, Cailleux discovered a very convincing Gallo-German etymology. It has two roots: sim, saim meaning source, marsh and oeis meaning ooze(hozen, osen- drain water). So, the Homeric Simoeis with her Gallo-German name drains the marsh between Gog Magog and The Wash and is now called Great Ouse. In Roman times the inhabitants of this region were still called Simeni (i.e Marsh-drainers).
In XIV,348 Hera and Zeus go to the Ida mountain to make love, and see: crocuses came up on the spot! The Ida where the Skamander (Cam) has his source is identified as Ditton Woods and see: the Cam springs up in Saffron Walden and saffron is made from crocuses!
8. Flora, fauna, cults etc.
Wilkens (p.40) points to the many clauses in which cows, bulls, calves, milking stables, poplars, willows (10,510) are mentioned, all familiar with our western European culture and climate. Homer tells about a death cult with cremation and urns of gold, buried below a tumulus, human sacrifices, full hospitality, and duels by which conflicts were solved. All these elements are not only exquisitely applicable to the Gallo-German world but occur all together only in that world!
In that way, Taylor confirms that in and around the Fens, serving as grazing meadows in summer, many sheep and goats were held, but mostly cattle. Bronze Age graves in England consisted of tumuli with one or more urns inside, covered with an inverted urn, wrapped in a bag or cloth held together by a pin. On the battlefield near the Cam, seven of this kind of tumuli have been found. This burial cult is exactly the same as Homer describes us in the clause about the burial of Patroklos.
The conclusion must be that geographical circumstances around the Cam and the Gog Magog Hills are all confirmed by Homer and, vice versa, that all details described by Homer are without exception present there and in their totality only there.
|1. With Atlantic authors are meant Ch.de Grave, Th.Cailleux, E.Gideon, I.J.Wilkens and less important F.Vinci.
|2 See also: Dictys Cretensis Dagboek van de Trojaanse Oorlog, Nawoord J, Leeuwarden 2013
|3. Blok J.H. De nieuwe strijd om Troje. Een debat in Duitsland over wetenschap en samenleving: Hermeneus 74,3 (2002) p.225.
|4 Homeric terms for Troy; hieron ptolietron- holy borough (1,2); mega astu- big city (II,332); 50.000 inhabitants (VIII,557).
|5 E.Akurgal, Frygische Kunst, Ankara, 1955.
|6 Platus-wide, broad, apeiron-endless big: 24,82 and XXIV,545.
|8 P.Bélon Observations en Grèce ...., Parijs 1553.
|9 bathyrroös -deep stream, akalarreitos -quietly streaming; the root -re- or -ro- means to stream.
|10 D.Easton Has the Trojan War been found in: Antiquity LIX, (1985) p.188 sq. comes to the conclusion that historicity is a matter of believing, a religious and not an historical virtue!
12 See Dictys p.246 with map of palace destructions in c. 1200 v.C. from: R.Drews The end of the Bronze Age.
|11 Thucydides Pel.War I,1-13; 6,2.
13 Migrations by land went through Russia, the Dnjepr, BlackSea. The Hyksos, identified as Saxons by De Grave, belong to the Sea People.
| Some numbers: 2.Pylos; 5.Tiryns; 7. Mycene: 8. Thebe; 10.Iolkos; 12. Knossos; 13. Troje; 14. Milete; 19. Hattusas; 30. Oegarit; 36. Aleppo; 40. Akko; 41. Megiddo; 46. Ashdod; 47 Ashkelon.
|14 See map Battlefield op: www.troy-in-england.com/id6.htm.
|15 Cambridgeshire Archeologische site: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Archaeological_sites_in_Cambridgeshire.
| A.Taylor Prehistoric Cambridgeshire, 1977
|16 Camden Britannia, 1607: Tit. Middlesex p.331: 'delubrum Apollinis'.
|17 Compare the Kill (monastery, church) of St. Columbanus in Iona.
|18 Compare with this the big Apollo-festival in the dark woods of Ithaka (20,276): 'Servants led an enormous amount of animals, sacred to the god, through the city. The short-shaven Achaeans came together in the dark wood of the bow-god Apollo.'
Abbreviations used for the books of Th. Cailleux (1878):
OC Origine celtique de la civilisation de tous les peuples
PH Poésies d' Homère
PA Pays Atlantiques, decrit par Homère
Citations of Homer: Roman cyphers = Ilias, e.g. XX,345; Arabic cyphers = Odyssey, e.g. 13,34.
Bibliography Atlantic authors:
Homeros Odyssee, by Gerard Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018 (abbr. H.O)
Gideon E. Troje lag in Engeland, Deventer 1991, reprint of Homerus, zanger der Kelten, 1973
Grave Ch.J. De République des Champs Élysées, Gent 1806, 3 parts.
Oosten H. van: Trojaanse tin-oorlog en Odysseus'oceaanroute 2020 (with English summary)
Vinci F. The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales, 2005
Wilkens I.J. Where Troy once stood, 1990,
Dutch: Waar eens Troje lag, 2015 Leeuwarden.
Series: Odysseus' First Voyage
- part 1: Troy- Gog Magog Hills, England
- part 2: Ismaros and the Kikonen - Brittany
- part 3: Lotophages - Senegal
- part 4: Cyclopes - Fogo, Madeira, Cameroon
- part 5: Aiolia andAiolos - Corvo (Azores)
- part 6: Laestrygones - Cuba, La Havana
- part 7: Aiaia and Kirke - Schouwen, Zeeland
- part 8: Hades-Walcheren, Zeeland
Series: Odysseus' Second Voyage
- part I: Tenedos-Thanet and the Seirenes;
- part II: Skulla, Charubdis -St. Michael's Mount
- part III: Thrinakia-Cornwall
- part IV: Ogygia- Azores, Kalupso;
- part V: Scheria-Lanzarote;
- part VI: Ithaka-Cádiz, Jérez